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Tuesday, May 31, 2005

C. R. Boxer's book about Tromp's journal in 1639 has a reference to "Aitzema"

I noticed by chance that there is reference to Captain Waterdrincker's journal in "Aitzema" Vol.II, pp.613ff. I happen to own a copy, so I will follow up on this reference later in the day. It is referenced in a footnote on p.38 of Boxer's book. The gist of the note is that Tromp beat to windward towards the Spanish armada prior to heading towards Witte de With. Witte de With's journal paints Tromp as immediately fleeing the Spanish until De With halted his flight. There is an account of this action on September 16, 1639 that from the Spanish side by De Mello. The biography of De With, Leven en Bedrijf, was written by his son-in-law, Walter Bremen van der Hagen. It paints a dismal picture of Tromp that differs from what we believe to be true. This is all from Charles Boxer's book The Journal of Maarten Harpertszoon Tromp Anno 1639 (1930).

Monday, May 30, 2005

Dutch Captain: Jan Richewijn

Jan Richewijn served the Admiralty of Amsterdam. In 1652, he commanded Ter Goes (40 guns). Ter Goes (or Goes) was a rather small 40 gun vessel. She was only 125ft x 29ft x 11-1/2ft. He was in the Mediterranean Sea for the first year of the First Anglo-Dutch War. In 1656, he commanded the Leiden (28 guns) in Lt.-Admiral van Wassenaer's expedition to Danzig. In 1659, he was with De Ruyter's fleet that was dispatched to the Baltic. He commanded the Zuiderhuis (40 guns).

Jan Richewijn and Jan Roetering were ordered to the Mediterranean Sea on 26 July 1652. Jan Richewijn had been assigned to Jan Gideonszoon Verburgh's squadron in De Ruyter's fleet. On January 30, 1653, while in company with Johan van Galen, in the Jaarsveld (44 guns), Ter Goes ran aground. The Jaarsveld was wrecked at the same time, having run into uncharted rocks 16 miles from Livorno, but Ter Goes was refloated. On 14 March 1653 (new style), Jan Richewijn fought in the Battle of Livorno. After Livorno, he returned to the Netherlands with most of the fleet. He was with Witte de With and Michiel De Ruyter on the operation to convoy merchantmen from Norway in October 1653. Ter Goes was dismasted in the storm that they encountered when almost home.

Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, "The First Dutch War in the Mediterranean," The Mariner's Mirror, Vol.49, No.4, November 1963.

  2. C. T. Atkinson, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol. VI, 1930.

  3. James C. Bender, unpublished manuscript "Dutch Ships 1620-1700", 2004.

  4. Dr. S.R. Gardiner, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol.I, 1898.

  5. Dr. S.R. Gardiner, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol.II, 1900.

Dutch Captain: Laurens van Heemskerck

Laurens van Heemskerck had served the Admiralty of the Maze (Rotterdam) prior to defecting to the English. Reportedly, he might have been shot if he had not defected. In 1659, he had commanded the Klein Hollandia (48 guns) in De Ruyter's fleet that was sent to the Baltic. He fought at the Battle of Lowestoft, where he commanded the Rotterdam ship Vrede (40 guns). He was assigned to Cornelis Eversen the Elder's squadron. He was courtmartialed after the battle for insubordination and eventually fled the country. In July 1666, he finally defected to the English, taking with him a list of ships lost at the Four Days Battle. He eventually was knighted by King Charles II. After the St. James's Day Battle on 25 July 1666, he guided Sir Robert Holmes in the attack on Terschelling. He had one command in the English service. In 1668, he was appointed captain of the Nonsuch. Sources:
  1. William Laird Clowes, The Royal Navy: A History from the Earliest Times to the Present, Vol.II, 1898.

  2. Frank Fox, A Distant Storm: the Four Days' Battle of 1666, 1996.

  3. G. L. Grove, Journalen van de Admiralen Van Wassenaer-Obdam (1658/59) en De Ruyter (1659/60), 1907.

  4. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Sunday, May 29, 2005

Jacob Simonszoon de Witt

Jacob Simonszoon de Witt served the Admiralty of the Maze (Rotterdam). In 1659, he served under the command of Michiel De Ruyter in the fleet sent to the Baltic. He commanded the Utrecht, a 44-gun ship built in 1653. In June 1665, he commanded the small three-masted jacht Swol. The Swol had been completed in 1662 and carried 20 guns. He fought in the Battle of Lowestoft, where he was assigned to Cornelis Evertsen the Elder's squadron. Sources:
  1. Frank Fox, A Distant Storm: the Four Days' Battle of 1666, 1996.

  2. G. L. Grove, Journalen van de Admiralen Van Wassenaer-Obdam (1658/59) en De Ruyter (1659/60), 1907.

Saturday, May 28, 2005

Hainsworth and Churches incorrectly state that the Brederode was "a converted East Indiaman"

I beg to differ with Hainsworth and Churches, where they state that the Brederode was a converted East Indiaman on page 20 of their book. The Brederode was, in fact, a purpose-built warship built by the Admiralty of Rotterdam as a replacement for the worn out Aemelia (57 guns) that had been Tromp's flagship at the Battle of the Downs. The Brederode was ready for sea by May 1645, and her first sea duty was as Witte de With's flagship during the operation to push a large fleet of Dutch merchantmen into the Sound past the Danes, without paying the toll. Willem van de Velde the Elder drew pictures of the Brederode setting sail from the Vlie on the way to the Sound. The Brederode was armed like an English 3rd Rate, although she was the size of the largest 4th Rates or the smallest 3rd Rates. Her keel, in English feet, could have been around 108ft.

Friday, May 27, 2005

Dutch Captain: Jan Roetering

Jan Roetering served the Admiralty of Amsterdam. In 1652-1653, he commanded the Utrecht (32 guns). He was operating in the Mediterranean Sea, although was not present at the Battle of Livorno. He and Jan Richewijn (in Ter Goes) had been sent as convoyers to the Mediterranean, having received their orders on 26 July 1652. In July 1654, he commanded the Maagd van Enkhuizen (34 guns). In 1656, he commanded the Star (30 guns) on the expedition sent to Danzig under Jacob van Wassenaer's command. In 1659, he commanded the Burg van Leiden (40 guns) under De Ruyter's command in the expedition sent to the Baltic. In 1667, he commanded the Oosterwijk (62-64 guns), and took part in the raids on Chatham and Harwich. In May 1672, he commanded the Steenbergen (68 guns). Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, "The First Dutch War in the Mediterranean," The Mariner's Mirror, Vol.49, No.4, November 1963.

  2. C. T. Atkinson, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol.IV, 1910.

  3. Gerard Brandt, Het Leven en Bedrijif van den Heere Michiel de Ruiter, 1687.

  4. Dr. S.R. Gardiner, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol.I, 1898.

  5. Dr. S.R. Gardiner, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol.II, 1900.

Thursday, May 26, 2005

Dutch Captain: Gerbrant Schatter

Gerbrant Schatter served the Admiralty of Amsterdam. His ship was one of 16 from Amsterdam that were part of Tromp's fleet on the voyage to the Shetlands in July 1652. In July, his ship carried 26 guns and had a crew of 95 men. We believe that he commanded the same ship through the First Anglo-Dutch War, until it was sunk at Scheveningen. By early 1653, his ship, the Dolphijn, carried 32 guns and had a crew of 100 men. His ship's dimensions were 116ft x 25ft x 12ft (Amsterdam feet). The Dolphijn had been built in 1633. In April 1652, he was operating with Witte de With's squadron. In 1656, he commanded the Burg van Leiden (42 guns) and took part in the expedition to Danzig. In 1659, he commanded the Prins te Paard (52 guns and a crew of 225 men). He was in De Ruyter's fleet that was operating in the Baltic. Sources:
  1. C. T. Atkinson, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol.IV, 1910

  2. Gerard Brandt, Het Leven en Bedrijf van den Heere Michiel De Ruiter, 1687.
  3. Dr. S.R. Gardiner, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol.I, 1898.
  4. G. L. Grove, Journalen van de Admiralen Van Wassenaer-Obdam (1658/59) en De Ruyter (1659/60), 1907.
  5. A. Vreugdenhil, Ships of the United Netherlands, 1648-1702, 1938.

Wednesday, May 25, 2005

English Captain: Edward Cotterell

In 1661, Edward Cotterel was captain of the Cygnet. He became captain of the Paradox in 1662. Sir Thomas Allin reported seeing him in the Paradox in September 1673, when his ship supplied the Paradox with provisions. By 1664, he was appointed as captain of the 5th Rate Forester (28 guns). He fought in the Battle of Lowestoft, where he was assigned to Thomas Teddiman's division. In 1666, he was appointed to command the Dutch prize Delft. In 1669, he was appointed as lieutenant on the Warwick. Sir Thomas Allin told of Edward Cotterell being Sir Edward Spragge's lieutenant in September 1669. In 1670, he was First Lieutenant on the 3rd Rate Revenge. Sir Edward Spragge appointed him to command the Argier in 1670. Prince Rupert appointed him to command the Augustine in 1672. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, The Journals of Sir Thomas Allin, Vol.I 1660-1666, 1939.
  2. R. C. Anderson, The Journals of Sir Thomas Allin, Vol.II 1667-1678, 1940.
  3. Frank Fox, A Distant Storm: the Four Days' Battle of 1666, 1996.
  4. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Tuesday, May 24, 2005

De Ruyter's fleet in 1659

Michiel De Ruyter led a fleet into the Baltic in 1659. Grove's list originally came from Brandt's biography of De Ruyter:
  1. Huis te Zwieten (Vice-Admiral De Ruyter) 280 crew, 64 guns
  2. Oosterwijk (Gideon de Wildt) 250 crew, 60 guns
  3. Kruiningen (Pieter van Brakel) 230 crew, 54 guns
  4. Amsterdam (Jan Gideonszoon Verburgh) 225 crew, 54 guns
  5. Tijdverdrijf (Willem van der Zaan) 225 crew, 50 guns
  6. Koevorden (Isaak Sweers) 225 crew, 50 guns
  7. Stad en Landen (Dirk Schey) 225 crew, 50 guns
  8. Prins te Paard (Gerbrandt Schatter) 225 crew, 52 guns
  9. Hilversum (Jacob van Meeuwen) 225 crew 52 guns
  10. Gouda (IJsbrand de Vries) 190 crew, 40 guns
  11. Vrede (Jacob Swart of Amsterdam) 190 crew, 40 guns
  12. Dom van Utrecht (Jacob Swart of Edam) 190 crew, 40 guns
  13. Tromp (Jacob van Berchem) 190 crew, 40 guns
  14. Raadhuis van Haarlem (Henrik Gotskens) 190 crew, 40 guns
  15. Provinciën (Jan van Amstel) 190 crew, 40 guns
  16. Campen (Allert Matthijszoon) 190 crew, 40 guns
  17. Marsseveen (Albert Claeszoon de Graeff) 190 crew, 40 guns
  18. Hollandia (Barent Cramer) 190 crew, 44 guns
  19. Burg van Leiden (Jan Roetering) 190 crew, 40 guns
  20. Zuiderhuis (Jan Richewijn) 190 crew, 40 guns
  21. Doesburg (Hugo van Nieuwhof) 190 crew, 40 guns
  22. Haarlem (Jan de Haan) 190 crew, 40 guns
  23. Gelderland (Hendrik Adriaanszoon) 190 crew, 40 guns
  24. Leeuwarden (Joost Verschuur) 150 crew, 36 guns
  25. Prins Maurits (Marinus de Klerk) 191 crew, 44 guns
  26. Utrecht (Jacob Simonszoon de Wit) 191 crew, 44 guns
  27. Gelderland (Adriaan Pol) 175 crew, 40 guns
  28. Klein Hollandia (Laurens Heemskerk) 212 crew, 48 guns
  29. Oranjeboom (Jan Noblet) 140 crew, 36 guns
  30. Zeelandia (Vice-Admiral Jan Evertsen) 263 crew, 54 guns
  31. Vlissingen (Cornelis Evertsen) 175 crew, 42 guns
  32. Utrecht (Frans Mangelaar) 175 crew, 44 guns
  33. Middelburg (Jacob Pensse) 175 crew, 42 guns
  34. Veere (Leyn Pikke) 175 crew, 42 guns
  35. Dordrecht (Jan Thijssen) 175 crew, 40 guns
  36. Zierikzee (Bastiaan Tuyneman) 175 crew, 40 guns
  37. Oostergo (Hendrik Bruynsvelt) 200 crew, 54 guns
  38. Westergo (Jan Janszoon Vijselaar) 157 crew, 45 guns
  39. Elf Steden (Albert Pieterszoon de Boer) 190 crew, 42 guns
I have used my preferred spellings for ships and captains

Monday, May 23, 2005

Richard Le Neve (or Le Neeve)

Richard Le Neve served in the Restoration navy. In 1666, he was lieutenant of the Lion. Later in 1666, he was lieutenant of the Centurion. In 1668, he was lieutenant of the Yarmouth. In 1669, he was appointed as lieutenant of the Swallow. Finally, in 1671, he was promoted to captain and appointed to command the 4th Rate Phoenix (the Phoenix had been rated as a 5th Rate before 1672). Richard Le Neve fought in the Battle of Solebay in the Phoenix, where he had been ordered to help save the Royal James's crew, along with the Dartmouth. Later in 1672, he commanded the Plymouth. In late 1672 and early 1673, he was with a squadron operating near Spain and the base at Tangier. In 1673, Prince Rupert appointed him to command the 3rd Rate Edgar. He was killed in action with the Dutch at the Battle of the Texel on 11 August 1673. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, Journals and Narratives of the Third Dutch War, 1946.

  2. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Sunday, May 22, 2005

English Captain: Jonathan Watham (Waltham)

Jonathan Watham served in the Restoration navy. Frank Fox calls him Jonathan Waltham, so the name in Pepys's list could be a misspelling. In 1661, he commanded the Nonsuch ketch. In 1664, he was appointed to command the Francis. Later in 1664, he was moved to the Sorlings. During the Four Days Battle, he was at Plymouth in the 5th Rate Sorlings. Like others, he moved to larger ships by first being a lieutenant. In 1672, he was appointed as First Lieutenant of the 2nd Rate Victory. Later in 1672, he was lieutenant on the Resolution. The King appointed him to command the 5th Rate Guernsey on 6 October 1673. On 3 November 1674, the King appointed him to command the Deptford ketch. Finally, on 12 April 1678, the King appointed him as captain of the Turkey Merchant, a hired ship. Sources:
  1. Frank Fox, A Distant Storm: the Four Days' Battle of 1666, 1996.

  2. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Saturday, May 21, 2005

Thanks to the Staet van Oorlog te Water for 1654, we know many Dutch ship armaments

It is hard to know if by July 1654, the armaments for Dutch ships that had recently fought in the First Anglo-Dutch War had changed much. There is some reason to think that they did, at least in some cases, as there was a group of ships that had their armaments reduced by this time. In other cases, the numbers of guns are similar to what they are known to have had during the war, and we can at least hope that they had not changed from what they had been. The 1654 list is strange, in that there is at least one ship there that had been lost during the recent war. For example, the 1654 lists the West Cappelle, the ship commanded by Claes Janszoon Sanger, which was sunk at Scheveningen. I believe that I have all of these in my unpublished manuscript "Dutch Ships 1620-1700" (2004). The format is such that some details have been omitted. A good bit of the 1654 Staet appeared in Vreugdenhil's list, although he made some curious omissions. For example, we know the captured English ship Leopard's (Luipaard) Dutch dimensions (145ft x 35ft x 14ft in Amsterdam feet). I am still hoping that I can find the source for much that is in the early part of Vreugdenhil that is not in the 1654 list. Very likely, there would be some captain-ship correlations made and some armaments listed. Vreugdenhil omitted all that sort of information, due to the nature of his list.

Friday, May 20, 2005

Given what I have learned about the Dutch navy in the last 1-1/2 years, I probably need to update the Privateers Bounty scenarios

I have learned a great deal about the Dutch navy in the last year-and-a-half. When I have the time, I need to update the Dutch OOB's in the Privateers Bounty scenarios. I also need to take another run at the Dutch OOB's for the Battles of the Gabbard and Scheveningen. It really should be possible to make a better estimate than I have previously. Through a variety of sources, I have better information about ship names, armaments, and dimensions.

Thursday, May 19, 2005

Dutch Admiral: Jacob Pieterszoon Tolck

Jacob Pieterszoon Tolck served in the West-Indian Company from 1636 to 1639. He was a commander in the expedition to Portugal and fought in the Battle of Cape St. Vincent in 1641. He served under Vice-Admiral van Lier. In 1641, Jacob Pieterszoon Tolck was a temporary Vice-Admiral. This is from my translation of the short entry in Luc Eekhout's Het Admiralenboek.

Wednesday, May 18, 2005

English Captain: Richard Carter (Updated)

Richard Carter served in the navy from about 1672 until 1692. He was appointed as lieutenant on the Cambridge in 1672. In 1673, he was appointed to command the 5th Rate Success. Later in 1673, Prince Rupert appointed him as captain of the Crown. He fought in the Battle of the Texel as captain of the 4th Rate Crown. He was among 13 or 14 ships that were hotly engaged with the Dutch, late in the day, including those commanded by Prince Rupert, Sir John Harman, and others, including Richard Carter. The King appointed him to command the Swan on 12 April 1675. On 7 January 1678 (they called it 1677, in the old style), the King appointed him as captain of the 4th Rate Centurion. On 30 August 1688, he was appointed to the 3rd Rate Plymouth. In the War of the English Succession, Richard Carter fought at the Battle of Bantry Bay, on 1 May 1689 (old style), still in the Plymouth (60 guns). In 1690, he fought in the Battle of Beachy Head, where he was assigned to Lord Torrington's Red Squadron. By 1692, he had been promoted to Rear-Admiral, and before Barfleur, commanded an independent squadron ordered to cruise in the Channel. When he fought at the Battle of Barfleur, he flew his flag on the 2nd Rate Duke (90 guns). He was killed late in the battle. Rumours had said Richard Carter was sympathetic to the Jacobite cause, but William Laird Clowes thought that he proved his loyalty to William and Mary by his conduct at Barfleur. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, Journals and Narratives of the Third Dutch War, 1946.
  2. William Laird Clowes, The Royal Navy: A History from the Earliest Times to the Present, Vol.II, 1898.
  3. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Tuesday, May 17, 2005

Dutch Admiral: Aertus Gijsels van Lier

Aertus Gijsels van Lier was born at IJsselstein in 1593 and died at Mödlich (near Lenzen in Germany) on 8 December 1676. He was lord of Lingen and was a civil servant in the service of the Verenigde Ostindische Compagnie from 1611 to 1640. He was a commander in the expedition to Portugal and fought in the Battle of Cape St. Vincent in 1641. He was a counsellor of the Elector Frederick William of Brandenburg from 1647 to 1654. He was a private counsellor and erfheer (some sort of lord) at Lenzen from 1654 to 1676. He served the Admiralty of Zeeland. In 1641, he was a temporary Vice-Admiral. In 1642, he left the service. This is from my translation of the entry in Luc Eekhout's Het Admiralenboek.

Monday, May 16, 2005

English Captain: Richard Sadlington

Richard Sadlington served in the Restoration navy. He was a lieutenant in 1666 on the 4th Rate Reserve. He had been appointed by Prince Rupert and the Duke of Albemarle. In 1668, he was first lieutenant on the 2nd Rate Victory. He was appointed captain of the 5th Rate Mermaid in 1672. Later in 1672 he commanded the Dartmouth and then the "English" Ruby. He fought in the Battle of Solebay in command of the Dartmouth. During the battle, he destroyed one Dutch fireship and captured another. Later in the battle, the Duke of York ordered him to help rescue as many of the Royal James's crew as possible. By August, he was the Crown's captain, and was assigned to Sir Edward Spragge's division. Pepys wrote that Richard Sadlington was appointed as captain of the Crown in 1673, but Anderson's Journals and Narratives clearly shows he had assumed command during 1672. He was killed in action at the second Schooneveld battle on 4 June 1673. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, Journals and Narratives of the Third Dutch War, 1946.
  2. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Sunday, May 15, 2005

More about Hendrick Janszoon Loncque

I have translated a bit more about Hendrick Loncque (or Loncq) from Charles Boxer's book about the Dutch in Brazil:

"Thanks to a large number of prints and paintings from these years, we know how piet Heyn, Hendrick Loncq and many other Dutch who took part in the fight for Brazil looked. The Portuguese art is in this respect is very sparse, so that Fr. Vicente's pen sketches of Albuquerque [Mathias de Albuquerque] are all the more welcome."

We now jump ahead to the next mention of Hendrick Loncq in February 1630.

"The Dutch attacked at two different places. Whereas Loncque, with the largest part of the fleet, tried force the access to the port of Recief, Waerenburgh with the greater part of the troops landed at Pau Amarello, ten kilometres at north of Olinda. "

Saturday, May 14, 2005

Now what we need are the documents that Vreugdenhil used for 1625 to 1653

What we now need are the documents that supplied the information for Vreugdenhil's list for 1625 (the Eenhoorn) to 1653. He obviously had access to information that has not been published, and which Rick van Velden has not yet been able to find (at the Nationaal Archief). If it can be found, there almost certainly is more there than Vreugdenhil published, as he did not print armament lists, crews, and captains. Frank Fox predicted to me that we will eventually find everything we need to finish a comprehenive picture of the Dutch navy.

Hendrick Corneliszoon Loncque

Hendrick Corneliszoon Loncque is not mentioned in Luc Eekhout's Het Admiralenboek. I suppose the reason was that he was serving the VOC, not an admiralty. My only source about him is the Dutch version of Charles R. Boxer's book De Nederlanders in Brazilië 1624-1654, originally published in English in 1957, with the Dutch translation being published in 1977. Hendrick Corneliszoon Loncque had been a subordinate commander, under Piet Hein, in the capture of the Spanish Silver Fleet. In that operation, Maarten Harpertszoon Tromp had been Piet Hein's flag captain. My ability to read Boxer's book is low, as the translation into Dutch uses a great deal of vocabulary that is different from that used by Luc Eekhout and Dr. Elias. I will give you bits and pieces from Boxer that I have translated.

"The decision to attack Pernambuco must have been taken by the "Nineteen Lords" sometime in late 1628 or early 1629. Preparations were slowed by the crisis in Holland caused by the invasion of the Veluwe by Spanish and Imperial troops. As already mentioned, the West-Indian Company was aided in this critical summer of 1629 by money and a strong troop strength, but was delayed several months by this distraction. A part of the expedition was able to sail in May and June, but the rest were only able to leave in the course of October and November. The command of the fleet was in the hands of Hendrick Corneliszoon Loncque,who had been a subordinate commander of Piet Hein's in the capture of the Silver Fleet. Landing and garrison troops were the responsibility of Jonckheer Diederick van Waerdenburgh, who three had luitenant-kolonels under his command."

"Loncq, who on 27 June 1629 had left, had, before continuing across spent some months off the Cape Verde islands to wait the arrival of the remaining part of the fleet."

I will translate more, later, but this is a start.

Friday, May 13, 2005

Andrew has more information about Henry Killigrew

I will try and paraphrase the information that Andrew found (although much is practically a quote, although I have also added material) about Henry Killigrew, the English captain and admiral. Henry Killigrew served in the Restoration navy and continued to serve after the Glorious Revolution that put William III and Mary II on the throne. He served from 1666 until 1702. He held 28 appointments during that time. Henry Killigrew died in 1712. He was the son of Henry Killigrew (1613-1700). He was the oldest brother of Captain James Killigrew. He was commodore of the squadron suppressing piracy in the Mediterranean Sea during 1686. In 1689, he was Vice-Admiral of the Blue. From 1689 until 1690, he was commander-in=chief in the Mediterranean Sea, fighting the French. After the Battle of Beachy Head, he was joint commander of the fleet, along with Sir Clowdisley Shovell and Sir Ralph Delavall. During 1693, he was a commissioner of the navy. After the attack on the Smyrna convoy in 1693, he was dismissed.

Thursday, May 12, 2005

English Captain: Henry Killigrew

Henry Killigrew served in the Restoration navy and beyond. In 1666, he was appointed as Lieutenant of the 3rd Rate Cambridge. He was appointed as Lieutenant of the 4th Rate Sapphire in 1667. In 1668, he was appointed as Lieutenant of the small 4th Rate Constant Warwick. In 1672, he was promoted to captain of the Forester (28 guns). In the Forester, he fought in the Battle of Solebay, where he was assigned to Sir John Harman's division. In 1673, he commanded the Bonaventure (48 guns) and then Prince Rupert appointed him as captain of the Monck. He seems to actually have taken over the Bonaventure by August 1672, when he was assigned to Richard Beach's division. Pepys's list says 1673. The King appointed him as captain of the Swan prize on 9 March 1674. On 22 April 1675, the King appointed him as captain of the Harwich. Later in 1675, he commanded the Henrietta. After that, on 7 January 1677, the King appointed him to the Bristol. He was appointed to the 3rd Rate Royal Oak, by the King, on 20 March 1678. Later in 1678, he and his ship were dispatched to the Mediterranean. John Narborough appointed him to command the 3rd Rate Mary on 14 January 1679 (they called it 1678, because of the date of the Old Style end of year). I'm somewhat confused by Pepys's list, as he shows Henry Killigrew commanding the Leopard on 3 January 1679, but it must actually mean 1680, in the new style. 24 days later, he was apparently moved to the 4th Rate Foresight (as of 27 January 1680). By 1 May 1683, he was appointed to command the Montagu. The King appointed him to command the Mordaunt on 20 May 1684. On 20 May 1686, King James II appointed him to command the Dragon, after which he was sent to the Mediterranean Sea. By his efforts at pressing a French privateer, the Marquis de Fleury, he caused Fleury to cease his efforts. By 5 September 1688, he was appointed to command the Portsmouth. By 1689, he was apparently a Vice-Admiral. He was appointed to command in the Mediterranean Sea on 28 December 1689, but did not sail until 7 March 1690. After sailing on 10 May 1690, he chased 10 French ships, but could not catch them due to the foul bottoms of his ships. He was not very energetic, and allowed the French to sail to the Channel to reinforce Tourville for the Battle of Beach Head. Killigrew did not arrive until after the battle. After Beachy Head, Henry Killigrew was one of the fleet's three joint commanders. Again, in 1693, he was one of three joint commanders on one ship. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, Journals and Narratives of the Third Dutch War, 1946.

  2. R. C. Anderson, The Journals of Sir Thomas Allin, Vol.II 1667-1678, 1940.

  3. William Laird Clowes, The Royal Navy: A History from the Earliest Times to the Present, Vol.II, 1898.

  4. Julian S. Corbett, “A Note on the Drawings in the Possession of The Earl of Dartmouth Illustrating The Battle of Solebay May 28, 1672 and The Battle of the Texel August 11, 1673”, 1908.

  5. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

English Captain: Charles Wylde

In 1665, the Duke of Albemarle appointed Charles Wylde to command the hired merchantman Baltimore. Frank Fox writes that Wylde commanded the Baltimore from 20 May 1665 until 6 July 1666. The Baltimore was ready to sail only by July, and her first operation, along with the Loyal Subject, was to convoy East Indiamen home from Kinsale. By November, the Baltimore was engaged in convoying the Hamburg trade, and was assigned to the Winter Guard for 1665-1666. Charles Wylde fought in the Four Days Battle, although the Baltimore also took part in the St. James's Day Battle and the action on 31 August. After the Four Days Battle, Prince Rupert and the Duke of Albemarle appointed Charles Wylde to command the 4th Rate Centurion. In 1670, he was appointed to command the 4th Rate Assurance. In 1672, he commanded first the Bristol (48 guns) and then the 2nd Rate Triumph. He fought in the Battke if Solebay in the Bristol, where he was assigned to Sir Edward Spragge's division. In 1673, he was back in command of the Centurion. On 7 January 1678 (they called it 1677), the King appointed him to command the Mary Rose. On 15 April 1678, he was given command of the St. Michael. Finally, on 2 June 1683, he was appointed to command the Oxford. He died sometime before 1688. Sources:
  1. Julian S. Corbett, “A Note on the Drawings in the Possession of The Earl of Dartmouth Illustrating The Battle of Solebay May 28, 1672 and The Battle of the Texel August 11, 1673”, 1908.
  2. Frank Fox, "Hired Men-of-War, 1664-7", Part II, The Mariner's Mirror Vol.84 No.2 (May 1998).
  3. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Wednesday, May 11, 2005

English Captain: Thomas Wilshaw

In early 1666, Prince Rupert and the Duke of Albemarle appointed Thomas Wilshaw to command the fireship Milkmaid. Somewhat later in 1666, he was appointed to command the fireship Abigail. He fought in the St. James's Day Battle and expended his fireship there. Later still in 1666, he commanded the Malaga Merchant. In 1671, he was appointed to command the Francis. In 1672, he commanded the fireship Castle. He fought at the Battle of Solebay. At one point, he was asked to attack the Dutch Vice-Admiral, but in the low visibility from smoke, was not successful. He seems to have been attached to Sir Edward Spragge's squadron in September 1672. Sometime after than, he commanded the 4th Rate Reserve. On 30 March 1678, the King appointed him to command the 2nd Rate Royal Katherine. In 1679, he commanded the Elizabeth. On 21 October 1679, the commissioners appointed him to command the James Galley. In 1680, he commanded the Albemarle. In 1683, he commanded the 2nd Rate Neptune. I will need to look in Clowes, Vol.II for information about his later career. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, Journals and Narratives of the Third Dutch War, 1946.
  2. Frank Fox, A Distant Storm: the Four Days' Battle of 1666, 1996.
  3. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Tuesday, May 10, 2005

Dutch Naval Officer: Wemmer van Berchem

Wemmer van Berchem was born in Doesburg about 1580. He died in Doesburg on 30 May 1653. He served the Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie from 1607 to 1621. He was dismissed after being charged with being absent from duty in 1638. He served the Admiralty of Amsterdam and was appointed as Captain in 1621. On 28 April 1628, he was promoted to Vice-Admiral. He left the service in 1638. This is from my translation of the entry in Luc Eekhout's Het Admiralenboek.

Monday, May 09, 2005

Dutch Naval Officer: Cornelis Simonszoon Loncque

Cornelis Simonszoon Loncque was born in 1545 and died at Vlissingen on 24 September 1619. He commanded the squadron on the Flanders coast from 1586 until 1588, and again in 1589. He served the Admiralty of Zeeland. He was appointed captain on 8 October 1577. From 20 October 1586 until 13 October 1588, he was a temporary Vice-Admiral. Again, from 3 April 1589 until 1 December 1589, he again served as a temporary Vice-Admiral. This is from my translation of the piece in Luc Eekhout's Het Admiralenboek. I would add that it is noteworthy that Cornelis Loncque served during the Armada campaign in 1588, when the Dutch collaborated with the English in fighting the Spanish Armada.

Sunday, May 08, 2005

Photos of my latest Battle of the Kentish Knock run in Privateers Bounty

From my latest attempt at fighting the Battle of the Kentish Knock, this is a photo of almost the whole Dutch fleet hammering the disabled 2nd Rate James.

This is a picture of the English squadron which is quite distant from the main action beating to windward.

I was just playing the Battle of the Kentish Knock scenario

I was playing the English side in the Battle of the Kentish Knock scenario in Privateers Bounty. That scenario can be downloaded, along with others, at AngloDutchWarsBlog.com. The English were ahead with 80% of their goal left, while the Dutch, under AI control, still had 95% to go. I had to quit, however, as the memory leak issue had caused me to lose the ability to steer the English ships. I did take some good photographs, however, which I will be posting. I was commanding the English, as I said, with the difficulty at the maximum. I also had grouped the entire English fleet, for better or worse. That left one squadron maneuvering at a distance, out of range. As usual, I steered the entire fleet with the helm. The English had the weather gauge, although they could easily have lost it. I was fighting aggressively with the English, and with the first pass, tried to break the Dutch "line", and then backed off, after doing so.

Dutch Captain: Gillis Janszoon

Gillis (or Gilles) Janszoon died in the Sound on 2 June 1659. He commanded in the Battle of the Sound in 1658, and died of sickness or wounds on board his ship. Gillis Janszoon served the Admiralty of Zeeland. He was appointed as captain in 1636. In 1657, he was promoted to Schout-bij-Nacht. This is from my translation of the short biography in Luc Eekhout's book Het Admiralenboek. We also know more about Gillis Janszoon than what Luc Eekhout has written. During the First Anglo-Dutch War, he seems to have commanded the Zeeland ship Zeeridder (28 guns). He took part in Tromp's abortive voyage to the Shetlands, where the fleet was scattered by a storm. He was very likely at the Battle of the Kentish Knock as well as the Battle of Dungeness, later in 1652. He also fought in the Battle of Portland, where he was in Cornelis Evertsen's division. He almost certainly took part in the Battles of the Gabbard and Scheveningen, later in 1653. In 1658, he commanded the Zeeland frigate Windhond (23 guns).

Friday, May 06, 2005

English Captain: Thomas Trafford

Thomas Trafford served in the Restoration navy. In 1660, he was appointed as lieutenant of the 3rd Rate Leopard. In 1661, he was appointed as lieutenant of the 3rd Rate Monck. In 1663, he became lieutenant of the 4th Rate Nonsuch. In 1664, he was appointed as lieutenant of the 4th Rate Amity. In 1666, he was appointed as captain of the 4th Rate prize Unity. He fought in the Four Days' Battle, where he was assigned to Sir George Ayscue's division. On 25 July 1666, he fought in the St. James's Day Battle, where he was assigned to Sir Jeremy Smith's division. In 1671, he was appointed as captain of the 2nd Rate Old James. In 1672, Prince Rupert appointed him as captain of the Guinea frigate. On 12 April 1678, the King appointe him to command the hired merchantman, the Persia Merchant. On 5 September 1682, the commissioners appointed him to command the boats at Portsmouth. On 11 June 1685, the King reappointed to command the boats. Sources:
  1. Frank Fox, A Distant Storm: the Four Days' Battle of 1666, 1996.

  2. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

More about Sir William Jennens from Andrew

Andrew passed on more information about Sir William Jennens, which I have further supplemented. He was active at sea from 1661 until 1690. He was a captain in the navy and a Jacobite. He was knighted. He commanded the Ruby in the Battle of Lowestoft (3 June 1665) and in the Four Days' Battle from 1st to 4th June 1666. He also commanded in the St. James's Day Battle, where he commanded the Lion. He was captain of the 2nd Rate Victory in 1673, and served under Prince Rupert. He entered service in the French navy in 1689 and served under Tourville at Beach Head in 1690. He was born in 1634 and died about 1700.

Thursday, May 05, 2005

A correction to the list of Blake's fleet in 1654: Thomas Foules

Andrew asked me about "John Foules" and I couldn't find anything about him. The only clue I had was that he commanded the Taunton from 1654 to 1655. I checked the list in Clowes, and found that the correct name was "Thomas Foules". That name still didn't appear in Anderson's list of captains. There, he is called "Thomas Vallis", which is sort of a phonetic spelling of "Foules" ("Vallis", "Vollis", or "Foulis"). Thomas Foules served in the Commonwealth navy. From 1650 to 1651, he commanded the 5th Rate Nicodemus. From 1651 to 1654, he commanded the old 4th Rate Expedition. He fought in the Battle of the Gabbard, where he was assigned to Lionel Lane's division. He probably fought in the Battle of Scheveningen, as well. In December 1653, he was assigned to the Winter Guard, and his ship was lying at Chatham. From 1654 until 1655, he commanded the Taunton. In February 1655, he took part in the blockade of Porto Farina, under the command of Captain Stayner. Michael Baumber omits the Taunton from the list of ships that actually attacked. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, "English Fleet-Lists in the First Dutch War," The Mariner's Mirror, Vol.XXIV No.4, October 1938.

  2. R. C. Anderson, List of English Naval Captains 1642-1660, 1964.

  3. Michael Baumber, General-at-Sea, 1989.

  4. William Laird Clowes, The Royal Navy: A History from the Earliest Times to the Present, Vol.II, 1898.

Dutch Naval Officer: Nicolaes Marrevelt

Nicolaes Marrevelt served the Admiralty of Amsterdam. He commanded in the Battle of Lowestoft in 1665. In 1666, he fought in the Four Days Battle and the St. James's Day Battle. He also took part in the Raid on Chatham in 1667. He was appointed to extraordinary captain in 1653. In 1665, he became a temporary Schout-bij-Nacht. This is from my translation of the entry in Luc Eekhout's Het Admiralenboek. We know more about Nicolaes Marrevelt. In 1652, he commanded the 36-gun ship Zeelandia (built in 1643). In 1656, he commanded the 32-gun ship Maagd van Enkhuizen. In 1658, he commanded the small frigate Overijssel (28 guns). In 1665, he was in the Stavoren. In 1666 and 1667, he flew his flag on the larger Geloof. This is from my unpublished manuscript "Dutch Ships: 1620-1700" from 2004.

Wednesday, May 04, 2005

English Captain: Edward Thompson

Edward (or Edmund, as Anderson called him in his list of captains) Thompson served in the Commonwealth navy. He commanded the hired merchantman Ruth (30 guns and a crew of 80 men in early 1652) from 1651 to 1653. In early 1652, he was assigned to Sir George Ayscue's squadron and he took part in the expedition to capture Barbadoes from the Royalists and to discourage Dutch trade in the English colonies. In August of 1652, he fought in the Battle of Plymouth, under Sir George Ayscue's command, against Michiel De Ruyter's Channel fleet. In early 1653, he probably fought in the Battle of Portland. From later in 1653 until 1654, he commanded the Dutch prize Advantage. He seems to have not been present at the Battle of the Gabbard, but he (now called Edmund Thompson by Anderson) now commanded the Advantage (26 guns) and fought at the Battle of Scheveningen. In 1655, he commanded another Dutch prize, the Plover. From 1655 to 1656, he commanded the 5th Rate Greyhound. He commanded the old 4th Rate Expedition from 1656 until 1659. We know that Edward and Edmund were the same man, as there are two separate sources that refer to him, while captain of the Advantage, by the two first names. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, "English Fleet-Lists in the First Dutch War," The Mariner's Mirror, Vol.XXIV No.4, October 1938.
  2. R. C. Anderson, List of English Naval Captains 1642-1660, 1964.
  3. C. T. Atkinson, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol. VI, 1930.
  4. Dr. S.R. Gardiner, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol.I, 1898.

Andrew cautions that we don't know if the two John Woods were related

The idea that the two English captains named John Wood were related was more speculation than anything, as we don't have any concrete evidence to show whether they were related or not. Andrew cautions against assuming that relationship, unless we can find some link.

Tuesday, May 03, 2005

Dutch naval officer: Daniël Elsevier

Daniël Elsevier lived from about 1640 until 26 February 1688. He commanded in the Four Days Battle, the Battle of Solebay in 1672, the two Schooneveld battles and the Battle of the Texel in 1673, and at Bornholm and Oland in 1676. He served the Admiralty of Amsterdam. He was appointed a lieutenant in 1665. In 1672, he was promoted to captain. In 1683, he was a Schout-bij-Nacht. Finally, in 1686, he was appointed as a Vice-Admiral. This is from my translation of the piece in Luc Eekhout's Het Admiralenboek. We also know that he commanded the Stavoren (46 guns) in 1672 and the Zeelandia (44 guns) in 1673.

Andrew says that the what is in Pepys confuses the father and son John Wood

Andrew says about John Wood:
I think that in your biography of the captain John Wood are presents the elements of the service another captain by this name. The first John Wood served in the navy from 1660 to 1672 (or - 1673), and he served as captain of the ships. The second John Wood (junior), who was died in 1682, was begin his service in the navy (as lieutenant and captain)really from 1672 (or 1671). I think that this services appointments - In 1671, he was appointed as 2nd Lieutenant of the 1st Rate St. Andrew. He served as lieutenant, in 1673, on the Assistance, the Princess, and the Lion. Then, Prince Rupert appointed [him] as 3rd Lieutenant on the Sovereign - It is a begin of naval career of the second John Wood (d.1682), not a first captain John Wood (died after 1672). I think that a last appointment of the first captain John Wood was this - In 1672, Prince Rupert appointed him to command the 4th Rate Kent. He served under John Narborough in late 1672.

Monday, May 02, 2005

English Captain: John Wood

John Wood served in the Restoration navy. In 1660, he commanded the Dutch prize Sophia. In 1665, Prince Rupert and the Duke of Albemarle appointed him as commander of the former 4th Rate Providence, now serving as a fireship. He fought in the Four Days Battle, where he was assigned to Sir George Ayscue's division. He also fought in the St. James's Day Battle on 25 July 1666, where he was assigned to the White Squadron. In 1666, he was appointed captain of the 2nd Rate Unicorn. In 1667, he was appointed to command the John. In 1671, he was appointed as 2nd Lieutenant of the 1st Rate St. Andrew. In 1672, Prince Rupert appointed him to command the 4th Rate Kent. He served under John Narborough in late 1672. He served as lieutenant, in 1673, on the Assistance, the Princess, and the Lion. Then, Prince Rupert appointed as 3rd Lieutenant on the Sovereign. Finally, later in 1673, he was given command of the Bonaventure. On 28 March 1676, the King appointed John Wood to command the Speedwell. The King next appointed him to command the 4th Rate Diamond on 2 April 1677. Finally, on 16 July 1681, the commissioners appointed him to command the 4th Rate Constant Warwick. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, Journals and Narratives of the Third Dutch War, 1946.
  2. Frank Fox, A Distant Storm: the Four Days' Battle of 1666, 1996.
  3. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Sunday, May 01, 2005

Dutch naval officer: Hidde Sjoerds de Vries

Hidde Sjoerds de Vries was born at Sexbierum on 22 December 1645. He died in a fight on the North Sea on 1 July 1694. In a fight with French privateers near Dunkirk he was shot by a pistol ball and died. He served the Admiralty of Friesland. He was appointed captain in 1683. He was promoted to Schout-bij-Nacht on 26 March 1692. This is from my translation of the entry in Luc Eekhout's Het Admiralenboek. Andrew says that Hidde Sjoerds de Vries was in combat against Jean Bart's squadron when he was killed.

English Captain: John Seaman

John Seaman served in the Commonwealth navy. In 1649, he commanded the Jermyn, a prize. In 1650, he commanded the 6th Rate Paradox. From later in 1650 until 1651, he commanded the 6th Hart. From 1651 to 1652, he commanded the 5th Rate Fox, which was later used as a fireship. From 1653 to 1655, he commanded the 4th Rate Dragon (36 guns). In early 1653, John Seaman fought in the Battle of Portland in the Dragon. He fought in the Battle of the Gabbard, where he was assigned to Joseph Jordan's division. The Dragon was now armed with 38 guns. He also fought in the Battle of Scheveningen, where he was wounded. In December 1653, he was assigned to the Winter Guard, and his ship was lying in the Tilbury Hope. In 1656, he commanded the 4th Rate Jersey. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, "English Fleet-Lists in the First Dutch War," The Mariner's Mirror, Vol.XXIV No.4, October 1938.

  2. R. C. Anderson, List of English Naval Captains 1642-1660, 1964.

  3. R. C. Anderson, Lists of Men-of-War 1650-1700: Part I English Ships 1649-1702, 1966.

  4. C. T. Atkinson, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol. VI, 1930.

  5. William Laird Clowes, The Royal Navy: A History from the Earliest Times to the Present, Vol.II, 1898.

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